The Records Management and Declassification Agency (RMDA) has five elements operating in two separate locations.

The Records Management Division supports the Archivist of the Army, represents the U.S. Army to the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA), and ensures that statutory requirements established by Congress (e.g., USC 44, 36 CFR) are complied with during the collection and preservation of Army records. The Records Management Division is responsible for operating the Army Records Management Information System (ARIMS) which is the Army's official world-wide web-based system responsible for archiving the Army’s official records, including e-mail.

The Army Declassification Activity (ADA) reviews Army classified records as mandated by Presidential Executive Order (EO) 13526, as well as sensitive documents related to the Overseas Contingency Operations (OCO) and Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD), to protect them from being inadvertently released to terrorists. RMDA represents the Army on numerous intergovernmental/interagency working groups (including CIA, FBI, NSA, DIA, DOS, DOE, NARA, and OSD), which meet to discuss and identify better ways of protecting National Security Information (NSI) from inadvertent disclosure. This is a SecArmy delegated mission.

The U.S. Army Office for Unit Records Response conducts research of records related to Army Veteran's disability claims for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). This entails extensive military unit records and official data base research to directly support the Department of Veterans Affairs with Veterans' disability claims for compensation, and the Office for Unit Records Response provides essential information to Veterans organizations, individual Veterans and families, Veterans' representatives, and Congressional staffers.

The U.S. Army Freedom of Information (FOIA) Office provides HQDA level policy and program guidance to over 200 Army FOIA offices worldwide. This is a SecArmy delegated mission.

The U.S. Army Privacy Office serves as Executive Agent for the Army PA program. The PA office provides HQDA level policy and program guidance to Army privacy officials worldwide. On behalf of the SecArmy, the Director, RMDA, advises the Component Senior Official for Privacy on privacy matters.